I’ve been getting a blue screen of death every time I transfer a large amount of data from my Windows 7 system to a SMB server. It does not matter if the server is Linux running Samba or a Windows Home Server, the results are the same. I found this article on MS Help and Support that sheds some light on the subject. At least part of the problem may be that the Transport Driver Interface used by my virus scanner is interacting badly with Win 7.
I installed the hotfix associated with the article and it seems to be working.